1. Hannah Arendt: The Origins of Totalitarianism, New York 1951, Penguin, p.308. 不能與群眾混為一談者還有被鄂蘭稱為「暴民 (Mob)」的群體，例如波希米亞人、瘋子、黑幫份子、流氓或陰謀家等，但礙於篇幅，本文未詳述。
2. Eng: p. 311: „The term masses applies only where we deal with people who either because of sheer numbers, or indifference, or a combination of both, cannot be integrated into any organization based on common interest, into political parties or municipal governments or professional organizations or trade unions. Potentially, they exist in every country and form the majority of those large numbers of neutral, politically indifferent people who never join a party and hardly ever go to the polls. “; in der deutschen Ausgabe: Elemente und Ursprünge totaler Herrschaft, Piper, 21. Auflage 2019: S. 667-668.